Temeljni je cilj istraživanja bio utvrditi u kojoj mjeri djeca s oštećenjem sluha sudjeluju u sportu te analizirati motoričku efikasnost djece s obzirom na faktor oštećenja sluha i sudjelovanja u sportu. Istraživački uzorak obuhvatio je ukupno 341 dijete u dobi od 7 do 11 godina, od čega je bilo 60 djece s oštećenjem sluha. U svrhu istraživanja se koristio upitnik o sudjelovanju u sportu i 7 testova motoričkih sposobnosti. Početno je istraživanje provedeno u Poliklinici Suvag u Zagrebu, a na čujućoj djeci u dvjema osnovnim školama te u nekoliko sportskih klubova u Zagrebu. Prije testiranja su se prikupili podaci o morfološkim obilježjima te osobnim podacima. Osobni podaci za svako dijete su osigurali informacije o dobi, spolu i medicinskom stanju, a za djecu s oštećenjem sluha i informacije o slušnoj rehabilitaciji, kao i stupnju, vrsti, vremenu nastanka i uzroku oštećenja sluha putem zadnjeg audiograma. Na pitanje o postojanju razlika među djecom u sudjelovanju u sportu odgovorilo se na temelju usporedbe s prikupljenim podacima o čujućoj djeci. Dvosmjerna se analiza varijance koristila za utvrđivanje razlika u motoričkoj efikasnosti s obzirom na faktor oštećenja sluha i sudjelovanja u sportu. Glavni nalazi pokazuju da samo 40% djece s oštećenjem sluha sudjeluje u sportu te da, očekivano, postižu statistički značajno lošije rezultate u motoričkoj efikasnosti u odnosu na čujuću djecu, što ide u prilog većini istraživanja koja su pronašla slične motoričke probleme. Jedino su rezultati u testovima za procjenu jakosti i izdržljivosti gornjeg dijela tijela te jakosti i fleksibilnosti gornjeg dijela tijela podjednaki kod čujuće djece i kod djece s oštećenjem sluha. Dobiveni su rezultati u vezi s faktorom sudjelovanja u sportu u skladu s očekivanjem, jedino su rezultati u testovima za procjenu ravnoteže i fleksibilnosti mišića stražnje strane natkoljenice podjednaki u populaciji djece koja sudjeluju i koja ne sudjeluju u sportu. To direktno upućuje na zaključak da je tu vjerojatno riječ o zanemarivanju razvoja ravnoteže i fleksibilnosti u trenažnom procesu. Nema interakcije između oštećenja sluha i sudjelovanja u sportu, što je objašnjeno uz pomoć mogućih neodgovarajućih uvjeta za vježbanje koje imaju djeca s oštećenjem sluha, pri čemu se prvenstveno misli na komunikacijski aspekt za vrijeme trenažnog procesa te nedovoljnog vremenskog sudjelovanja u sportu koji bi doveo do nepostojanja razlika u motoričkoj efikasnosti kod djece s oštećenjem sluha u odnosu na čujuću djecu. Doprinos istraživanja očituje se u novim spoznajama o diferencijaciji čujuće djece i djece s oštećenjem sluha u navedenim područjima.
|Abstract (english)|| |
Hearing impairment represents a significant public health problem associated with a number of limitations in the individual child development, which may affect their social and motor development. Principal objective of this study was to determine to what extent children with hearing impairment participate in sports and to analyse the motor efficiency in preschool children and elementary school children considering the factors of hearing impairment and participation in sports. The research sample included a total of 341 children of 7-11 years old. As part of the research on participation in sports, total sample counted 272 students (143 boys and 129 girls) from two elementary schools and 60 children with hearing impairment (30 boys and 30 girls). The above mentioned sample was formed to address the question of how many children with hearing impairments participate in sports, since the problem cannot be analysed on a general level due to the lack of statistical data on the involvement of preschool and elementary school children in sport clubs and programs in Croatia.
The research sample for the analysis of motor efficiency included a total of 80 children (40 boys and 40 girls) of 7-11 years old who were divided into 4 groups of 20 entities with respect to the hearing impairment factor and participation in sport. For the purpose of the research a questionnaire about children's participation in sports and standardized series of tests "Presidential Youth Fitness Program" were used, including five tests aimed at evaluation of the motor efficiency (curl-ups, trunk lift, 90 push-ups, back saver sit and reach, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run - The PACER) and tests for balance assessment (standing on one leg longitudinally on the balance bench, with eyes open) as well as coordination abilities (side steps).The initial study was conducted in the Polyclinic Suvag in Zagreb, and on normal-hearing children in two elementary schools (in Zagreb and Karlovac) and in several sports clubs in Zagreb. Prior to testing, data on morphological characteristics and personal data of each child were collected. Morphological data consisted of data on body height, body weight, skinfold over triceps and subscapular skinfold. Personal data of each child provided information on age, gender and medical condition, and for children with hearing impairment an information about the beginning and duration of the rehabilitation and inclusion in the physiatrical rehabilitation program at the Polyclinic Suvag, as well as the degree, type, time of occurrence and causes of hearing loss through the most recent audiogram.
Based on the set objective, two research hypotheses were formulated. The first research hypothesis assumes the existence of statistically significant differences between normal-hearing children and children with hearing impairments in participation in sports. Thereby it is expected that children with hearing impairment, compared to normal-hearing children, will be significantly less involved in sports. The second research hypothesis assumes statistically significant difference in motor efficiency. Here the expected interaction is in such a way where within children who do not participate in sports, children with hearing impairments will have a motor deficit in comparison with normal-hearing children, while the above differences will not be present within children who participate in sports regardless of hearing impairment. To the question on the existence of differences among children participating in sports, the answer was given by comparing with the data obtained on normal-hearing children. Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences in the motor efficiency with respect to the factors of hearing impairment and participation in sports.The main findings of this study show that only 40% of children with hearing impairment participate in sports and achieve significantly lower results in strength and endurance of the abdominal muscles, hamstring flexibility, aerobic capacity, balance and coordination, more accurately the agility in comparison to normal-hearing children. Results are in favour of the majority of studies that have found statistically significant motor problems in children with hearing impairment. Only the results of the push up and trunk lift tests, respectively, tests to assess the strength and endurance of the upper body and the strength and flexibility of the upper body, were equal for both normal hearing children and children with hearing impairment. For the trunk lift test, there are no data on the metric properties of the test for elementary school children, and no literature mentioning a similar test conducted among the population of children with hearing impairment was not found either. The result of the test 90 push-up is not consistent with former studies, but it should be mentioned that former studies used the pull up test activating another group of upper body muscles in comparison to the push-up.Effect of the other independent variable being participation in sports, showed to be statistically significant in almost all of motor efficiency tests (curl up, trunk lift, 90 push up, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run The PACER and side steps), except in tests standing on one leg longitudinally on the balance bench with eyes open and back saver sit and reach (left and right leg). The results obtained in terms of the factor of participation in sports are in accordance with the expectations, since participation in the teaching process of physical and health education and in extra-curricular or organized sports activities certainly contributes to the development of certain components of motor efficiency. Only the results of tests assessing the balance and flexibility of the hamstring muscles, are equal within the population of children who participate in sports and those who do not participate in sports, which directly leads to the conclusion that there is a high probability of neglecting the development of balance and flexibility in the training process of pre-school and elementary school children.Despite predicting no interaction between hearing impairment and participation in sports, which is explained with the help of possible inappropriate conditions for exercising that children with hearing impairments have, primarily referring to the communication aspect during the training process and still too short and of small volume training process, that would lead to non-existence of differences between motor efficiency in children with hearing impairment compared to normal-hearing children. Here it is believed that possibly a period of 5 or more years of participation in sports would lead to partial or complete cancelation of the obtained difference in results.The contribution of this research is noticeable in new knowledge on difference in participation in sports of normal-hearing children and hearing impaired children in the Republic of Croatia, and differentiation in motor efficiency of children and the lack of expected interaction, considering the factors of hearing impairment and participation in sports. The resulting knowledge can be directly applied in planning, programming, implementation and control of the effects of physical and health education and in sports systems involving children with hearing problems, and are useful for students of kinesiology, educational and rehabilitation, and teaching programs.